Facing Taiwan Strait on the west and Bashi Channel on the south, Kaohsiung is a beautiful and modern metropolis located in southern Taiwan as well as the second largest city of this island.
Kaohsiung has various landscapes: the lush Chai Mountain and Banping Mountain, the clear and serene Lotus Pond, and the Love River flowing across the city. This subtropical city is often full of sunshine and gentle breeze from the sea. Sitting between Cijin Island and downtown, Port of Kaohsiung is a world-class port in Taiwan as well as an international trading hub. The ceaseless ships and containers from the world represent the energy and vitality of the business in Kaohsiung.
On December 25, 2010, Kaohsiung City merged with Kaohsiung County as the Greater Kaohsiung, a metropolis occupying an area of 2,947 km2 extending from the Central Mountains to the Taiwan Strait. The total population is approximately 2.77 million. Possessing diverse of natural landscapes and living facilities, this metropolis has developed as a new international city.
Kaohsiung City is an important hub for Taiwan to the world. The transportation network includes air and marine, which serves industries of logistics, financial insurance and technology R&D. After the merge of the city and the county, a variety of agricultural resources as well as industrial and high-technology parks has created many advantages and benefits. In the great Kaohsiung, immediate services and comprehensive social welfare to each citizen are ensured. The resources of the city and the county also better facilitates the government’s administration. With all the features and advantages, Greater Kaohsiung’s competitiveness will be greatly enhanced as promised.
Kaohsiung City is located in the southwestern part of the island of Taiwan. The city, which lies almost entirely in the south of the Tropic of Cancer, has a tropical monsoon climate. It is dry in the winter, hot and wet in the summer and autumn. The climatic changes are not dramatic due to the moderating effect of the Taiwan Strait. The lowest temperature is usually in January and February ranging from 19.9 to 21.5°C, and the hottest months are from June to August, with averages from 28.3 to 29.5°C. The average temperature in 2010 was 25.1°C. 11 months out of 12 the temperature exceeds 20°C. The lowest temperature reported in January of 2011 in low-elevation areas was 10.9°C, which is exceptionally cold. The sunshine duration of Kaohsiung City is about 200 hours per month, which is higher than any other place in Taiwan.
Due to the effects of the southwest monsoon, the rainy season is concentrated from May to September. From October through March, because the northeast monsoon is blocked by mountains, the dry season lasts for six months. Summer and autumn are typhoon seasons. According to Central Weather Bureau statistics, an average of three to four typhoons hit Taiwan annually, mainly from July to September. These have always brought heavy rains. With the increasing frequency of extreme weather events in recent years, precipitations exceeding 500 millimeters in a single day have been reported. For example, during Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and Typhoon Fanapi in 2010, Kaohsiung City experienced record-breaking rainfall.
Expected industrial/economic changes
- Development of clean tech industries:
KCG is encouraging and promoting the Energy Service Company (ESCO) and trying to create a niche market for those innovative industries. Also, KCG has developed subsidy mechanisms and projects to support the development of renewable energy industries, especially on solar and wind power.
- Increased energy security:
Since the renewable energy is developing, the energy diversity is increasing. KCG is developing the renewable energy and promoting the energy conservation. Thus, the less dependence on import fossil fuel is expectable, the energy security is increasing.
- Green jobs:
As the clean tech industries are developing, the green job opportunities will be increasing at the same time.
Other expected development
Kaohsiung has implemented diverse environmental protection policies and measures to improve the living quality of the citizens. Parks and wetlands are reconnected to formulate an ecological corridor, connecting bike lanes, landscape
boulevards, school paths, and the coming linear park of underground rail. The city is building a network weaving blues and greens. It integrates applications of renewable energy and green economy to minimize carbon footprint and emission.
Kaohsiung promises the citizens and the next generations a living environment of happiness. Urban development proceeds with conservation of urban landscape, cultural activities, and social welfare advancement. In the future, Kaohsiung will continue building a livable city and everyone is invited to celebrate this qualitative transformation.
What is the policy, vision, or objective of the town? Please specify the actual goal and its metrics, if applicable.
In order to strengthen the capability of climate change adaptation and promote the development of a low-carbon city, Kaohsiung city government, according to different competent authorities and sectors, separated works of GHG emission reduction into 6 aspects including green economy, business carbon reduction, energy conservation construction, low-carbon transportation, green ecology, and low-carbon education. The government, at the same time, established administration strategies. In addition, Kaohsiung city government drew up the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Plans, embodying objectives and contents of each aspect, and listed measures and actions which may be able to be adopted for fulfilling short term, medium term and long term goals.
Brief outline of the low carbon town development plan
1. Energy and Resource Integrated Project:
Kaohsiung city government has successfully promoted the Project of Energy and Resources in LinHai industrial park, taking China Steel Company (CSC) as the core selling waste heat and steam to surrounding factories. In 2014, CSC sold 18.9million tonnes steam, which would be equal to reducing emission 434 thousand tonnes CO2e produced by burning fossil fuels.
2. GHG Emission Reduction and Control Autonomous Regulations:
According to the Kaohsiung’s Environmental Maintenance and Management Autonomy Regulations, the Environmental Protection Administration or central competent authority shall declare public and private spaces for stationary sources of emissions of greenhouse gases, which should set a self-management plan, setting greenhouse gas reduction targets of the process
3. GHG inventory and reduction:
Kaohsiung City Environmental Protection Bureau actively promotes energy-efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of the project. According to the ISO14064 standard, the plants should be assisted by the task of inventory, reduction of counseling and log in. From 2009 on, Kaohsiung City Environmental Protection Bureau has investigated all of the plant located in Kaohsiung in accordance with the ISO14064-1 and cancelled over 51 plants. Furthermore, Kaohsiung City Environmental Protection Bureau has made a survey to know how many plants located in Kaohsiung is willing to cooperate with the plan of voluntary reduction of carbon reduction. It was estimated that there are reduction amount on Carbon reduction by 71,808 tons in the seven years ,which resulted from 6 times counselling on 2012.
4. Energy management counselling, efficiency improvement:
Carbon Reduction Technique Foundation’s counseling founded on 2014 aims to provide both on diagnosis, analysis on the energy usage of general plants’ production or relevant facility and on assistance for factory owners to set up an improvement to realize the practically using situation ,which can be seen as a reference of level-up efficiency and up-graded information.
Take the example on 2014, if cooperated with the project, three plants on the plan were improved their overall carbon reduction benefits, saving energy consumption totaled of 7,080,300 degrees of the total electrify amount and3.569 million cubic meters of natural gas per year, saving energy costs total 2,533 million, representing a decrease of approximately 4,366.3 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year.
5. Promote the Energy Service Company (ESCO):
Kaohsiung City Government largely introduced energy saving companies (ESCOs) to the city. It can not only integrate power from private companies to update energy-saving equipments, but also stimulate the development of green economy in Kaohsiung.
6. Green Building Autonomous Regulations
In order to promote green building for fulfilling the vision of low-carbon city, Kaohsiung city government imposed Green Building autonomous regulations in Jun., 2012. It forces that new building construction and old building renewal, with different scales; need to fulfil certain levels of green building standards.
7. Green Roof and community:
The KCG has been promoting green roof and space in the city. Up to 2014, green space reached 467 places, 152 ha in public place. 6962 GHG reduction is anticipated.
8. Subsidy for solar photovoltaic installations:
Subsidy for solar photovoltaic installations. The solar photovoltaic is subsidized NT$10,000 (US$333) per KWP, and each subsidy is limited NT$300,000(US$10,035),and each applicants is limited NT500,000(US$16,667) for more than one subsidy.
9. Green Financing:
Kaohsiung city government imposed "Green Financing – Commercial loans and strategic loan (III, IV)”, providing NT$200 million low-interest loans to photovoltaic system operators in 2012, and adding NT$100 million loans for Kaohsiung citizens willing to set up solar photovoltaic systems.
10. Subsidy to old buildings renovation:
Kaohsiung city government provides subsidy to private buildings to improve its energy efficiency. The subsidy covers LED lights, water-saving taps…etc and is up to NT$20000 (USD$ 666).
11. Extending Cycle Way:
Kaohsiung city government continuously extends cycle way to create a cycle-friendly environment to bikers. Cycle way of over 755 km long has been built.
12. Set up more public bike rental system:
Kaohsiung continuously set up new public bike rental stations. So far, 159 stations have been set up, which can provide 200 ,000 citizens to use each month.
13. Public transportation transferring privilege and shuttle buses:
Adding shuttle buses for KMRT (Kaohsiung Metro Rapid Transit) users, and providing privilege for people transferring between KMRT and public buses, aiming to double public transportation users.
14. Kaohsiung Light Rail:
Kaohsiung is building a light rail system. The project with 22.1 km long, includes two stages. So far, the first stage is underway, and will be completed and operated in Jun., 2015, while the whole stage would be operated in 2019.
15. Subsidy to green transport (electronic scooters):
The city government provides subsidies to replace two-stroke scooters with electronic scooters. The subsidy is NT 23,000 (USD$ 766) at most. Up to 2014, more than 6,000 electronic scooters has been subsidised.
16. Wetland Conservation:
Kaohsiung city government put lots of efforts in the issue of wetland conservation because of its abilities of carbon fixing, unban flood detention, and ecological and recreational value. The city has successfully created 19 wetland parks in Kaohsiung with total area about 1,125 hectare.
17. Advocating Green Campus:
Many actions have been taken between 2005 and 2009 to advocate green campus, and the impressive results are in 6 aspects including illumination, energy conservation, planting, water conservation, recycling and thermal insulation.
18. Encouraging Green Purchase:
In order to stimulate the development of green economy in Kaohsiung, the city government promotes goods with green labels, including energy-saving label and water-saving label, to citizens.
19. Buildings: Kaohsiung Main Public Library:
The green energy environmental concept of the building: Kaohsiung Main Public Library is integrated into every floor; the design of the third to eighth floors on the southwest side is a five-meter-deep green turf landscape balcony providing a cool place to hide from the burning rays of Kaohsiung’s summer, and also allowing citizens to lie on a lawn, or read under a tree, thus providing an excellent green space for reading.
20. Community-Scale Development: The project of Low-carbon and Sustainable Homes
Kaohsiung City Government coordinates with nation’s low-carbon strategy so as to promote and operate the plan of local low-carbon and sustainable homes, such as “The ten operational functions” and so forth.
21. Kaohsiung house designing and feedback project:
In response to the impact of climate change and the advent of an aging society, Kaohsiung city government imposed Kaohsiung house designing and feedback project in September,2014. The estimation base is 20% of 5829 buildings constructed in 2013: The setting of three-dimensional green roof increases the total green area of 11 football fields, and total power generation is about 18 National Stadiums. All green building practices creates 16,619 tons carbon reduction, equivalent to about 1.66 million trees planted in carbon sequestration.
What central/local government departments are/will be involved in development of the project?
Environmental Protection Bureau of Kaohsiung City Government, Economic Development Bureau, Transportation Bureau, Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit, Public Works Bureau, Urban Development Bureau, Agriculture Bureau, Tourism Bureau, Finance Bureau.